Syria is also another case where all foreign-led mediations have failed. When Kofi Annan and Lakhdar Brahimi were appointed in 2011 to lead UN mediation efforts, there was hope for a mediated solution. However, shortly after their resignations out of frustration, one after the other, the UN gradually lost the lead and the space for any meaningful impartial facilitation.

Foreign powers who are directly involved in the conflict created parallel processes that failed to produce any significant progress and any hope for a political settlement. The political impasse continues and is deepening, as the balance of power has largely shifted in favour of the Syrian government and its foreign supporters.

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